National costume of Indonesia is a national costume that represent Republic of Indonesia. It is derived from Indonesian culture and Indonesian traditional textile traditions. Today the most widely recognize Indonesian national costume are Batik and Kebaya, although originally those costumes are mainly belongs within the culture of Java and Bali, most prominently within Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese culture. Since Java is the center of Indonesian politics since colonial era, as well as the majority of Indonesian population, it is only natural that the folk costume from Java are elevated into national status.
National costumes are worn during official national as well as traditional ceremonies. The most obvious display of Indonesian national costumes can be seen by the type of costumes wore by President of Indonesia and Indonesian first lady, and also Indonesian diplomatic officials during gala dinner. The national costumes of Indonesia can be seen wore by the guest of Indonesian traditional wedding ceremony.
Batik is a cloth that is traditionally made using a manual wax-resist dyeing technique to form intricate patterns. Traditionally batik cloth is a large piece of intricately decorated cloth used by Javanese women as kemben or torso wrap. Batik cloth were wrapped around the hips with multiple folds in front called wiron, while the upper torso wear kebaya fitted dress. Traditionally for men, the edge of batik cloth also can be sewn together to make a tubular cloth as sarong, or wrapped around hips as kain in fashion similar to women's. Later for men, the batik cloth also sewn and made into contemporary batik men's shirt.
Batik is recognized as one of the important identity of Indonesian culture. UNESCO designated Indonesian batik as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on October 2, 2009. As part of the acknowledgment, UNESCO insisted that Indonesia preserve their heritage.
The kebaya is the national costume of Indonesia, although it is more accurately endemic to the Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese peoples. It is sometimes made from sheer material such as silk, thin cotton or semi-transparent nylon or polyester, adorned with brocade or floral pattern embroidery. Kebaya usually worn with a sarong or batik kain panjang, or other traditional woven garment such as ikat, songket with a colorful motif.
The earliest form of Kebaya originates in the court of the Javanese Majapahit Kingdom as a means to blend the existing female Kemban, torso wrap of the aristocratic women to be more modest and acceptable to the newly adopted Islam religion. Aceh, Riau and Johor Kingdoms and Northern Sumatra adopted the Javanese style kebaya as a means of social expression of status with the more alus or refined Javanese overlords.
Kebaya is usually worn during official national events by Indonesian first lady, wives of Indonesian diplomats, and Indonesian ladies. It also worn by Indonesian ladies attending traditional ceremonies and weddings. In Kartini day in 21 April Indonesian women usually wear Kebaya to celebrate and honor the Indonesian women emancipation heroine. During Balinese traditional ceremonies, Balinese women wore colorful Balinese style kebaya with songket Bali.
Peci, also known as songkok or kopiah, are traditionally male Muslim's cap. In Indonesia, the black velvet peci has been the national headdress with secular nationalist connotations made popular by SukarnoYusep Hendarsyah (28 April 2011). "Peci Hitam dan Identitas Paling Indonesia". Kompasiana. Retrieved 28 March 2012. Numbers of Indonesian nationalist movement activist in early 20th century wore peci such as Sukarno, Muhammad Hatta, and Agus Salim. Indonesian male presidents always wear peci as part of their official presidential attire.
Variation include Acehnese kupiah.
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